Does owning land make you a lord?

Does owning land make you a lord?

Explain the functions of serfs during the Middle Ages.

The medieval Latin word vasallus derives from the classical Latin vassus (“servant”), which in turn is possibly a cognate of Indo-European origin with the Celtic root wasso- (“young man, squire”); as in the Welsh word gwas (with the identical meaning of “young man” or “servant”), in the Breton goaz (“servant”, “vassal”, “man”) and in the Irish foss (“servant”).

Diminutive of vassallus is vassellitus (“young nobleman”, “squire”, “page”), which was used in Gallo-Romance and originated the French word that evolved into the forms vaslet, varlet or valet (valet de chambre or “valet”) that also passed into English (varlet recorded in 1456 and valet in 1567).[1].

The structuring of the clergy produced a similar pyramid because of its link to the interests of the nobility, because of its economic and territorial power (dead hands) and because of the three monastic vows (poverty, obedience and chastity). This structure was reproduced in the secular clergy (pope, archbishops, bishops, canons, archpriests, priests) as well as in the regular clergy (generals and provincials of the different religious orders, abbots and monks of the different monasteries) and in the military orders.

Feudal Lord

We are fast approaching the great day of Jehovah, that time of “renewal,” when He will come in the clouds of heaven to execute vengeance on the wicked and prepare the earth for the reign of peace for all who are willing to keep His law [see Acts 3:19-20]3.

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…Has not knowledge increased? Has there ever in the history of the world been so much knowledge poured out upon the people? But sadly, Paul’s words are true: people are “always learning, but can never come to the knowledge of the truth” (2 Timothy 3:7)….

Have we not had numerous rumors of wars? [See D&C 45:26] Have we not had such wars as the world has never seen before? Is there not at present commotion among the nations, and are not their rulers troubled? Have not kingdoms been overthrown, and have there been no great changes among the nations? The whole earth is in commotion. Every day earthquakes are reported in various places [see D&C 45:33]….

Servitude in the Middle Ages

1. Christ lives, our hope, and He is the most beautiful youth of this world. Everything he touches becomes young, becomes new, becomes full of life. So, the first words I want to address to each of the young Christians are: He lives and wants you alive!

2. He is in you, He is with you and He never leaves. No matter how far away you go, the Risen One is there, calling you and waiting for you to begin again. When you feel aged by sadness, grudges, fears, doubts or failures, He will be there to give you back strength and hope.

9. King David was chosen as a boy. When the prophet Samuel was looking for the future king of Israel, a man presented him with his oldest and most experienced sons as candidates. But the prophet said that the chosen one was the young David, who tended the sheep (cf. 1 Sam 16:6-13), because “man looks at the appearance, but God looks at the heart” (v. 7). The glory of youth is in the heart rather than in physical strength or in the impression one makes on others.

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Vassal

7. These contributions of the Popes gather the reflections of countless scientists, philosophers, theologians and social organizations that enriched the Church’s thinking on these questions. But we cannot ignore that, also outside the Catholic Church, other Churches and Christian communities – as well as other religions – have developed a broad concern and a valuable reflection on these issues that concern us all. To give just one noteworthy example, I would like to briefly mention part of the contribution of the beloved Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew, with whom we share the hope of full ecclesial communion.

10. I do not want to develop this encyclical without referring to a beautiful model that can motivate us. I took his name as my guide and inspiration at the time of my election as Bishop of Rome. I believe that Francis is the example par excellence of care for what is weak and of an integral ecology, lived with joy and authenticity. He is the patron saint of all those who study and work in the field of ecology, loved also by many non-Christians. He was particularly attentive to God’s creation and to the poorest and most abandoned. He loved and was loved for his joy, his generous dedication, his universal heart. He was a mystic and a pilgrim who lived in simplicity and in a wonderful harmony with God, with others, with nature and with himself. In him we see how inseparable are concern for nature, justice for the poor, commitment to society and inner peace.

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